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German Funk Horch Empfänger d.

My new  German receiver,

Funk Horch Empfänger d.

In this post my new beautiful German receiver, the Funk Horch Empfänger d.

For a better picture or schematic diagram, just click at the picture. To go back, just click right of the picture or schematic.

At the  time of  world war 2, even before and also today, armies and also of course armies  in world war 2, so the German Wehrmacht, were listening at all frequencies, from long wave, medium wave, short wave till VHF. Not only enemy stations, but also the normal broadcast frequencies. All these to check them for correct transmissions and also to intercept  enemy transmissions for important information etc. Even in Germany, radio amateurs were checked out in the beginning. But very soon, they were forbidden, because they were not important to the government.

These “Funk Horch Empfängers” were very sensitive with a lot of functions to receive even small signals at any mode, like A1, A2 and A3 transmissions.

A various amount of receiver types,  a, b, c, d and f for all different frequency bands, were placed in listening centers. For these listening centers,  called the”Fu 14″, were 10 Torn, E.b’s, 3 large short wave receivers KW-E a, 2 Horch Empfanger Fu.H.E. a/c and lateron also 2 Fu.H.E.d in use.

Also special troops from the Wehrmacht used them in a portable way, the “Funk Horch Truppe”. The name  for troops, who used the type D, the F.H.E. d , was called “Fu.- Horch-Tr. d”. Code name was “Horst- D”.

See also the book of Fritz Trenkle, die deutchen Funkpeil- und Horch -Verfahren bis 1945.

Some documentation:

Note: it concerns only the type d of date  1-10-1942, other types are often different in the schematic and sometimes funtion! Also changements, mods, were made in the various years, concerning the same type! So in practice, get the right manual.

Manufacturer: Telefunken, code name bou. Each manufacturer had its own code, for instance Lorenz was dre.

Type d.

Valves: 12 RV2P800.

Range: four ranges white, red, yellow and blue.

24,8 -31,7 Mhz, 30,45 – 39,30 Mhz, 38,82 – 49,35 Mhz, 47,90 – 51,90 Mhz.

modes: A1, A2 and A3.

headphones: type DFHa 2000 ohm.

The receiver is a super heterodyne type with a continuous variable bandwith by means of a crystal at 3000 Khz.

Also a CW filter is included at 900 Hz, “Tonsieb”.

Containing 2 RF stages, 1 mixer, 3 MF stages, 1 audion stage and 2 LF stages.

Also 1 stage for the CW oscillator, containing 2 crystals. Two frequencies for the oscillator can be chosen, TG 1 and TG2. Just 900 Hz down and 900 Hz above the carrier. When a unwanted signal is just down the carrier, the CW oscillator can be switched just 900 Hz above, so no problem any more to receive the correct signal.

In position TG1, a calibration signal is to be heard at several marker points of the frequency band scales. This after pushing the calibration button on the front of the receiver. The antenna signal is switched off, and the calibration signal is fed to the entrance of the receivers first RF stage. Amazing fact is, that in my receiver, the frequency scales are still calibrated after 70 years! Also the sensitivity is equal over the whole band.

 

The MF stages at 3000 Khz, contains one crystal. With that one the bandwidth is to vary. The calibration of this is also the same as 70 years ago!

Power supply original housed in a separate housing or transport case, “Tornistor”, providing 2 volts of a lead acid battery and a 90 volts static dry battery. It contains one lead acid battery, type 2B38 and 2 static HT anode batteries.

The receiver is complete original, inside and outside, so his case, and has it’s original color.

Front

The front of the receiver. All functions are good to be seen.

IMG_8144

Side view of the receiver.

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Side view. From left to right above: 2 RF stages, nr. 1 and 2, the mixer valve and the balanced  (Gegentakt) receiver oscillator. From left to right below: the 3 MF valves.

IMG_8137

Other side view: above the coil holder of the HF , mixer and oscillator part.  Each wave band has its own combination of 3 blocks. The contact fingers are to be seen just at the above side of the picture.  When changing the waveband with the big knob on the front, first the contact fingers are lifted, then it rotate, and when in position, the fingers are released and make contact with the coils contacts in the holder.  It is a common construction often used in German equipment.

The 3 coil blocks, for each wave band,  in their housing, seen in the mid of the picture, are easy to replace.  Below the power supply entrance and 2 entrances for the headphones of 2000 ohm.

IMG_8142

Back side. here to be seen the Audion-, the audio- pre amplifier- and the audio- final amplifier valve.

IMG_8146

A view of the power supply entrance and the haeadphones. left the LF output transformer, which is a different one, which is replaced because of malfunction by another German one.

IMG_8143

Upperview of the receiver. left the diodes for the AGC, eg “Mit Reglung”. In the mid the contact fingers for coils connections. Also to be seen the variable condenser for tuning the antenna. At the right the switch for measuring the anode currents for all the valves, to check them on the test meter at the left above corner on the front. All indications on the meter into the blue part of the scale. But the AGC ,”Reglung aus”,  switched off, the audio gain on maximun and switch mode,  “Tg1-Tn-Tg2″ at TG 1.

Furtheron, the receiver in in good working order. All his functions are working. The only component I had to exchange was a faulty condenserblock at the right side of the receiver, number 234 in the schematic diagram, which was very leaky. I did restore it, by putting a new one, electrolytic one of 47 uF-500 volts Dc, into the inside. It is like new now. You can’t see it. Also I cleaned all the electric contacts. And lubricated the mechanical aches of switches, scale driving aches etc..

Grund Schaltbild

The principle schematic diagram. Note, that it concerns only the type d. other types, like a, b etc. differ in schematic. All valves are RV2P800.

FUHE d

A close up of the receiver between other German equipment.

af8

Transmitter Navy, LO 40 K 39, from C Lorenz AG Berlin, Tempelhof.

 

This navy transmitter was in use by the former German Kriegsmarine, on board of battle ships. Some times in use as a spare transmitter on board of submarines. Even in use in the dessert sometimes.

af8

A very rare picture of the LO40K39 in use in the dessert. Left the power supply, to the right the transmitter. As a receiver, the Tornistor Empfanger b is used. This more powerful  transmitter was used, because distances became too large for the normal in use transmitters.

It contains three RL12P35 valves. One for the variabel oscillator stage and two in parallel for the power amplifier stage. Mine delivers about 40 watts output power on CW only.

LO 40K 39 front

Above the transmitter and below the power supply of mine.

Picture 004

Above the back view.

The right part is the oscillator stage, the mid unit is the power amplifier and the left unit the aerial matching part.

Picture 005

A clear view from above. Notice, that all tuned  circuits are variometer coils. The coils are fastened on ceramic holder for maximum frequency stability. Also complex circuit of special ceramic condense are included in these circuits. This also, to establish a great frequency stability.

lo40k6

Above the power amplifier valves, type RL12P35.

lo40k7

Above the aerial matching. A switch , with slide contacts on this coil e, seen on the picture, establish a good match on the aerial, a inverted L-aerial.

lo40k8

A good detailed picture of the oscillator stage. Tuning the frequency is done by a variometer circuit on a ceramic coil holder. An amazing design.

Kopie van LO 40 K 39a a

The data sheet of the transmitter. In this case both the transmitter and power supply are housed in the same cabinet. Often are housed in separate housings.

Lo40K39d_cable3

This is the cable between the power supply and the transmitter of mine.

Lo40k39d-1

The schematic diagram of the transmitter, a type d.

Russian transceiver 10 PT 12

In WW2, the Russian army, as well known, took a big part in fighting the German Nazis. They too, used a large amount of different radio systems for their communication.

One of these radio systems was the 10 PT 12 or 10 PT 26. The 10 PT 12 was mainly used in armoured car vehicles, while the 10 PT 26 was used in their famous tanks, like the T-34.

But just at about the last part of the war. In the beginning at about 1941/42, most tanks, like the T34 even did not have radio, later only the commander tank did have a transmitter and a receiver, while the other tanks had only a receiver. But at the beginning even no one did have any radio, while the attacking German tanks did have. Signs to the others were given by flag signs? That radio was  a big adventage for the Germans.  It seems, that the Russians suffer big losses, because of lack of communication. But later, at the end of the war, with the help of better communication, these T

-34’s were superior to the German tanks, like Tiger or Panther.

This also not because of their (smaller) guns and armour, they were smaller, but mainly because of their bigger speed. They could change their direction or changing position much faster then the heavy weight and bigger armoured German tanks.  That was the the big difference and was therefore most effective.

About the block diagram circuitry, it is much alike the Brittisch and Canadian Wireless set no 19. This transciever also use a transmitter mixer stage, with 2 signals mixed in it, the BFO on the frequency of the MF and the oscillator stage of the receiver.

The frequency covering of the 10 P(R)T 12 or 26 is 3,75 Mc till about 6.0 Mc. Also 2 crystal channels could be used.

The transmitter had a power of 3 watts on CW and 2 watts on phone. The antenna was mostly a 4 meter whip antenna.

After the war, the radio set was also used by the East German NVA army, also other Eastern Block countries.  So the Tsech army used it. You can see it at the Tsech or German text plates on it.

 

My experience with the 10 RT 12.

I managed to let the installation work in the 80 meter band.

But the transmitter seemed to be very tricky in use, because of his many unwanted harmonic signals , comming out of it. Also sometimes self-oscillating of the transmitter part occured. Why, I have maybe some explanation for it. See my my explanation below.

The frequency of the signal of the transmitter mixer part is in the receiver, is only pre tuned by one tuned  resonance  coil. ( mixer circuit 305 in the schematic diagram).The receiver needs to be realigned very secure, because this circuit 305 could be easily tuned to a false or  harmonic frequency, also other circuits in the anode circuit of the HF stage of the receiver.

In the transmitter part, there is no effictive pretuning to the working frequency, only  2 HF suppressor coils, which are very broad. Also the coil in the PA output stage, is not exactly in resonance with the working frequency, it only matches the transmitter to the anrtenna.

Because of these HF suppressor coils, the buffer and poweramplifier amplifies almost all frequencies below the 6 Mc or even higher frequencies. So it is most important to fed the transmitter part with a very clean, free of harmonics, signal.

So the only tuning to the correct  frequency to be used, is the correct matching to the antenna lenght. You can see the  the antenna in series with the matching coil in the transmitter part, as a complete resonance circuit, tuned to the working frequency. Otherwise harmonic frequencies become very strong!

You can easily match the wrong signal to the antenna!

I did a very secure alignment of all, spend a lot of time to it, but did not succeed in suppress the harmonics sufficient enough.

But maybe, that was not such a problem at that time. It was “wartime” , the British should say: Nowadays it is much more critical.

So I decided  to use the 10 RT 12, only for receiving signals, not to use the transmitter, untill  I have managed to solve these problems. But I am afraid I have to modify the schematic of the buffer/ amplifier stage to do so. Maybe a tuned circuit in the anode line of the buffer, and a real tank coil in the ande line of the PA? But then the transmitter is not original anymore, I have to think about it.

 The transceiver 10PT12.

 

 10PT12 012

Left the power supply for 12 volt, in the mid the receiver with crystalbox and right the transmitter.

The receiver 10PT12.

receiverpart

The receiver part, which is in my case, a modified 10 RT 26, the heatercircuit is modified from 26 volt to 12 volt, because the whole system is 12 volt. The receiver containes also a part of the transmitter.  It containes a transmitter mixer stage. In this mixer, 2 signals are mixed to the transmit frequency, eg. the crystal controlled calibration oscillator at 525 Kc( a kind of BFO) and the receiver oscillator. This signal from the mixer is fed through circuit 305 to a connector on the right of the front to the transmitter, to be amplified.

The transmitterpart 10PT12.

transmitterpart

The transmitter part. It consist of a power amplifier with buffer amplifier. Also one modulator stage is in it. It is modulated by a carbon microphone element in the tank helmet. You can choose 2 channels, the yellow and the red band section, but in the same overal frequency band.. The 2 knobs are tuning the the antenna matching of the 4 meter whip antenna. So it is easy to switch to a another channel without tuning again.

The rotary transformer, power supply 10 PT12.

powersupply

The powersupply unit for 12 volt. left up the receiver dynamotor and right up the transmitter dynamotor. In the mid the strange on/off switch. Battery power on receive is 7 ampere, on transmitt 17 ampere!

The crystals of the 10PT12.

The crystals are very different of the western allied types, I never saw it before.

On the picture below, you see 2 crystals. In the internal mid, you see the normal crystal plate.But at the left and right of it, you see a condensor. See also the schematic diagram at the end of this post.

When the operator chooses a red or yellow crystal channel, the main frequency tuning variable condensors are switched off. Now the correct tuning of the receiver oscillator circuit and the HF stage circuit are not correctly tuned anymore.  In this case the condensors in the crystal case are switch by. The value of the capacity is that way, that both stages are tuned correctly on the to be used frequency. So a quick frequency channel change is done without retuning. Technical it is a very beautiful solution.

crystals

crystal box

The crystal box with spare crystals just placed on the upper side of the receiver case.

Cover plates.

When once tuned the transciever to the to be used frequency channel, the cover could be placed on the fronts. This to prevent damage to it. When a tank is on the move, many mechanical shocks occure inside the tank or vehicle. The knobs are easily retuned after touching them by accident.

frontcover side onefrontcover  side 2

The frontcover of the receiver. The cover can be fastenend by the 2 knobs on the receiver front.

frontbevestigong1.jpg

Here to bee seen the cover mounted on the front of the receiver.

Tuning knobs of the transmitterpart 10 PT12.

transmitter earial tuning

A close up of the tuning knobs with scale of the transmitter part. In the mid, the connection, where the transmitter mixer signal is fed to.

Battery 12 volt 150 Ah.

battery 12 volt 150 Ah

The big battery of 12 volt 150 Ah. It is sure needed, because during transmit, the battery drain is 17 Ampere.

The schematic diagram of the 10PT12.

schematic diagram

The schematic diagram.

Note that the early versions of the 10 P(R)T have small changes in the circuitrycomparing it with the postwar 10RT26.

 The 6k7 valve in the left lower part is the transmitter mixer, with in its anode line the 305 circuit. This circuit is also used during receive as the input circuit for the HF stage.

The valve 6k7 with the crystal, is the calbration oscillator, which can also be used as a BFO for CW or SSB. The crystal frequency is 525 Kc, just like the MF frequency. The 2e valve at the upper left is a penta grid valve, the 6G7.  It function as a self oscillating mixer, eg the oscillator for  the receiver.

Both the BFO frequency and the receiver oscillator are mixed in the transmitter  mixer on transmit. Al tuned circuits need a very well alignment for transmit !!

Wireless trans 76 005

Wireless transmitter no 76.

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  1.   WIRELESS TRANSMITTER NO 76.

  WIRELESS TRANSMITTER NO 76.

The Wireless Transmitter no 76 was used also in the Battle of Arnhem at the Rear Link contacts to London. See discriptions in the posts Wireless set no 22 and receiver R109.

This transmitter can be only used on CW, telegrafie.  It is crystal controlled and has 6 channels. It delivers about 10 watts carrier output. There are only 2 equal valves in use, the ATS 25. Also 2 spares are inserted inside.

Inside is, as a power supply, a rotary transformer power supply for 500 volts. Input voltage is 12 volt DC.

My transmitter is in good, original and working condition. Inside and outside. There are 3 crystals inside in use for me, as a licensed radio amateur,  in the 80 meter amateur band. Lately also one for the new 60 meter amateur band.

The CW key is a no 9-a type, which is also there.

 

WS 76 1

Front of my Wireless transmitter no 76.

Wireless trans 76 005

Another look at the transmitter with the cables and the 100 ft wire antenna.

Wireless trans 76 003

The Wireless transmitter no 76 with the receiver R 109 a (T). The R109a was used with the Wireless transmitter no 76.

Wireless trans 76 006

My whole “Arnhem collection”. The WS no 38 mk2 and mk2*, The WS no 19 HP, The WS no 22, Wireless  transmitter no 76, R109 AT and the American portable set, BC 611.

At the left the Wireless set no 19 mk 3 Canadian, the Wireless set 101 Australian, the Wireless set no 11 Australian , the Wireless set no 62 mk2, they  were not in use at Arnhem.

It seemed, that the Wireless set no 62, manufactured in the late 1945,  was used later in the war, at the Rhine crossings?

British_airborne_troops_man_a_trench_with_a_No._76_wireless_set_at_Heldon_in_Holland,_3_February_1945._B14347

The very often published picture of the Wireless transmitter  76/receiver R109 combination in use with the Airbornes at Arnhem. Probably the phantom group for reporting to the press of the BBC in London?

lewis golden

Another picture from the Wireless transmitter  no 76 and receiver R109 published in the book of the author Lewis Golden.

Below some pictures of experiments with the Wireless transmitter no 76 and receiver  R109-a in the back of my garden. The weather was beautiful, so it was a pleasure to listen to the several amateur stations, at day time on 40 meters and at evening time on 80 meters. The antenna was a dipole antenna, stations were heard in mode single side band and CW. Some contacts with stations  were made on 80 meters in mode CW. None on 40 meters, by lack of crystals for that frequency. But the set is suitable for that frequency. Signal reports on 80 meter were very well.

Lately I made some new contacts in the new 60 meter amateur band, with only 5 watts output, but using a dipole as antenna. Amazing!

WS76 R109

The combination R109 and Wireless transmitter 76.

R109-A

Left the R109-a receiver. Also to be seen on top of the R109, the WS no 38 mk2.

WS76  right

At the right, the transmitter Wireless transmitter  no 76.

Overall view

Another view.

Wireless set no 38 AFV.

The Wireless Set no 38 AFV was used in conjunction with the Wireless Set no 19 in Armoured Fighting Vehicles, like tanks. For instance the British STUART tank.

At the controll units, no 16 and 17,  connected to the WS 38 with low frequency amplifier part and the WS  no 19, you could make a choice between the WS no 19 , WS no 38 or intercommunication amplifier. This  intercommunication amplifier, was used for communication between the members inside the tank. Also to increase the audio strenght of the WS no 38 receiver part.  The amplifier was needed, because of the heavy noise in the tank itselves.

WS 38 AFV

At the right  the transmitter/receiver WS no 38 AFV and at the left the intercommunication low frequency amplifier.

GLIDER LZ ARN

Wireless set no 22, with special Arnhem edition.

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  1. My Wireless Set no 22.

My Wireless Set no 22.

This my Wireless Set no 22 in working condition.

 

WS 22 view

WS 22 view, left the power supply and right the transmitter – receiver.

WS 22 close vieuw

  Wireless Set no 22. Providing only 1 Watt output power on phone and CW.

As a licensed radioamateur I used the WS 22 on phone with much succes in the 80 meters amateur band, all through the whole Netherlands. Even on the new 60 meter band, (5350-5450 Kc) also, though only with 0,5 watts output. Of course with the help of a dipole antenna. It is amazing, what such  less power will do, thanks to the good modulation.

Belt WS22

On this picture, I want to show the very rare belt on top of the set, for fastning the set on his carrier mounting. Because very less pictures are known of it.

t is a copy due to lack of the original one, but well made. Left on the power supply a tuning chart for matching the whip antennas according the lenght of it.

BATTLE OF ARHEM EDITION,

Especially the often disfunctioning of the used  radio nets, not  technical function or design of the radio sets, with some history, which was important to understand this.  about the progress in the first days,  also some text in the post Wireless set no 76, receiver R 109 and Wireless set no 38.

Note, that this part is constantly under construction, because still more information about this, is comming in. so in trying a good story of it.

Many stories about bad working radio sets, written by writer after writer, during some 30 years after the war, were very negative, the radio’s and radio nets  should failing completely, which was often very untrue  and based on poor  examined  information.  Especially in the beginning of the operation, the radio nets were working very well. In the last part, they were not so well anymore, but because of many reasons.

 Lewis Golden, being the second officer in the Royal Corps of Signal of the 1e Airborne Divisionel Signals, who served as a signal officer at Arhem 1944, wrote in his book Echoes from Arnhem:

That such a false picture might have been painted  quite intentionally by writer after writer in the absence of informed criticism is not difficult to understand, particularly if a study is made of a quite different but closely related aspect of the operation which was entirely wrongly portrayed for some thirty years.

The operational strength of the 1e Airborne Divisional Signals was 18 officers and 330 other ranks.

My experience with, for instance the Wireless set no 22 in use at Arnhem, showed that it was a good functioning radio set, good enough to make well contact within his range, depending on what type of aerial was used and what time of day.

The following books  read for getting information what happened during this battle are:

The battle of Arnhem 1958 by General-Major R.E. Urquhart, division commander of the 1e British Airborne division,

Waco CG-4A Gliders in Market Holland september 1944, by G. Thuring, a special remembrance book from the Liberty Museum 1944  at Groesbeek near Nijmegen,  The Netherlands.

Special book about an Exposition in 1991, about the radiocontacts in the Battle of Arnhem, at the Airborne Museum Hartenstein, Oosterbeek, The Netherlands, called  “CALLING  SUNRAY”,  march 1991.

Echoes from Arnhem by Lewis Golden.

Lewis Golden was present as a signal man at the divisionel headquaters at Oosterbeek in Hartenstein Hotel, during the most critical phases of fighting, and he was uniqueuely placed to observe and to understand what was going on. His book is a kind of bible about what really happened at Arnhem, while in many books a lot of things were discribed as not really true.

 

Setup Battle of Arnhem (Market):

The Battle of Arhem  was  the Market part of operation Market Garden.

Market,  because they were all airborne units.

Market Garden means: 

                                                       Market: Airlandings units, Garden: Ground Troops.

Market Garden started in september 1944, to capture the bridges over the several rivers, canals, between Valkenswaard (Belgium) and Arnhem (Netherlands), like the rivers Meuse, Waal and Rhine, to establish a fast run to the north of The netherlands and the industrial part of Germany, the Ruhr. This, to try  making a fast ending of the war.

Short overview of the progress of the battle at Arhem in the first days.

The bridge over the river  Rhine at Arnhem should be captured by the British and the Polish.  In the first lift, the 1 st Airlanding Brigade should land on LZ -“S”, north west of Wolfheze. The 1st Parachute Brigade at DZ- “X”and LZ- “Z”, north of Heelsum. The 1st Polish Parachute Brigade should dropped at LZ  – “L”, north west of of Arnhem  and DZ – “K” south of Arnhem in the second lift.

First were the landings and after it, the dropping of parachutists. The Droppingzones (DZ)/ and Landingzones (LZ) at Arnhem were  S, X, Y, Z., L and K.

On the map below, is to be seen, the overview of the landing and dropping zones. From dropping zone “X”and landing zone “Z”,  3 waves of troops going to Arnhem. These 3 waves did had code names Leopard, Tiger and Lion.

routes

The 1e Air landing Brigade was in the first lift at 17 september, and had the task of protecting the landing zones and dropping zones for the second lift. In the 2nd lift, one day later, the 4th Parachute brigade and the 1 Polish Parachute Brigade should come. Because of bad weather in England, they were delayed for 5 hours.

The 1e Parachute Brigade consist of 4 brigades, the 1 st , the 2nd  and 3th battalion. Also the 1st Polish Parachute Brigade should assist as a 4th battalion, but came in the second lift. Another special group, the Reconnaissance Squadron was also a part of the 1st Parachute brigade. This unit came also in the first lift. This  Squadron had the task to go to the bridge as fast as possible with jeeps to capture it by surprise and hold it, till they should be relieved by the 1  Parachute Brigade, which went on foot to the bridge.

The 1st Parachute Brigade should march on to Arnhem in these  3 waves. The 2nd battalion should hold the the bridge for 4 days after capturing from the Reconnaissance Squadron,  while the 3th battalion was to assist by approaching  the bridge at the north.

The 1st battalion was to occupy the high grounds, north of Arnhem. They went by wave code name Leopard. They were on the left flank and passed through Wolfheze to the main road running from Ede to Arnhem. The 2 nd battalion went by wave code name Lion, passing the villages Heelsum and Heveadorp and then through the most southern part of Oosterbeek.  The 3th battalion’s route was code name Tiger, and went through the centre of the Brigades advance. They went along the Oosterbeek road to Arnhem.

But all battalions got heavy enemy resistance, and could not reach the bridge in the first days. The 3 th battalion was stopped less then halfway and had to dig in at Koude herberg. The 1st battalion was held up halfway at Johanna Hoeve.  Also the Reconnaissance Squadron did not reach the bridge. Finally the 2nd battalion under major Frost did, by the southern route.

Droppings and landings near Arnhem.

All the dropped Airbornes and their equipment, heavy weapons  in the part Market, went by Horsa- (British made), Waco- (American made) ,Hamilcar -(also British made) gliders and Dakota C 47 airplanes. The British flew by a total of  about 700 Horsa-gliders and 13 Hamilcar gliders, while in the whole operation Market, about  2000 Waco CG-4A gliders,  from the American 9th Troop Carrier Command,  were  used. The Hamilcar gliders were bigger and were  used also for  transport of Airborne jeeps and their trailers, Brenn Carriers  and other heavy weapons like the  anti-tank cannons, howitzers  etc. They could transport more weight then the others.

PicStirlingTow-1

View from a glider towards to the towing airplane, a Stirling plane. Clearly to be seen, the towing cable, which is released from the Stirling, when they got above the right landing Zone.

HORSA JEEP 1

Loading a Airborne jeep into a Horsa glider at a base in England.

HORSA JEEP TRAILER

Airborne jeep with trailer at landing Zone Z, is just leaving the landing zone. Note that the Horsa, did make a safe landing but did make a small crash and was damaged. More gliders made a crash landing at the Landing Zones, because of enemy fire and the fact, that the Landing Zones got very crowdy with these gliders at last, by lack of sufficient free places .

21st independent parachute company (14)

The  fly-in of a Horsa from the 21st Independant Parachute Brigade on Landing Zone “Z”. This Brigade was also taken care of  marking the Landing Zones (Z), by Eureka beacon transmitters for the landings and droppings, which were coming afterwards. Watch the several parachute supply containers in the fore ground.

The transport of heavy  weapons, like  the 17 pounder anti-tank cannons, jeeps, also the radio jeeps, transport carriers (bren), went by the Hamilcar- and  WACO gliders. These Hamilcar gliders could even transport little tanks if nescesairy. But these tanks were not in use at Arnhem.

Hamilcar

Here a picture of a Hamilcar glider, which got damaged at his landing. At the back at the right another Hamilcar.

The  Horsa gliders were almost only used for the para’s and their weapons, ammunition, medical supplies etc., but often too to transport a Airborne jeep and trailer with only a few men, because of the weight.

The  C47 Dakota planes,  from the 9th Troop Carrier Command,  were also used for dropping the British Airbornes in the northern Market part.

The Dakota planes also dropped the para’s of the 101st Airborne division and the 82st Airborne division in the southern part of the Market part.

.Bridge

This was the bridge at Arnhem, where it was all about. The British 1e Parachute Brigade, the 2nd battalion of Frost,  managed  at last by the southern route along the Rhine boarder, which was not fully sealed off at that moment by the Germans,  to capture the north side of the bridge and managed to hold  it with 740 men, for only 4 days.  Trying to cross over the bridge by the British was failing.

btf348

Picture from the bridge, taken from the north side. This after the first attempt of the Germans, taking the bridge from the south,  with the help of armoured car vehicles. This is a picture scene from the film,” A Bridge too Far”. Typical British , the soldier holding the umbrella in his hand.

Verwoeste brug

Here the bridge, which was demolished by allied air attacks in October 1944, to prevent the Germans of taking counter attacks to the southern part, which was now in allied hands. Most of the left British, in the perimeter at Hartenstein, did already crossed over the Rhine by Operation Berlin. Picture probably taken in 1945, after Arnhem was liberated.

The Wireless set no 22.

Theirs-Is-the-Glory-13841_5

The wireless operator with the Wireless Set no 22, during the battle.

A picture scene in the post war film,

Theirs is the Glory.

I never have seen an original picture of a Wireless  in action during the battle in the first hours, who does?

The Wiireless Set no 22 was an important radioset, used by the British Airborne Troops in this battle.

Often the radioset was described as a bad working radio set, because communications between the several brigades and divisions during that battle was often not well. Often they blamed not only the technical side of the radioset,  but also other reasons. Also suggested in the film: A Bridge too far (1977).

But is this realy true? My opinion is not. There were a great deal of reasons, why the communications between the several brigades and battalions often failed.

Some reasons:

1)

Let’s consider the whole operation proceeded like the plans made for it. The communications, which should working well in their ranges  between the several groups, the limiting range was 3 to 5 miles, depending on which radio set was used, went by different radio nets at different frequencies. At all levels, the frequency of the radio nets should be well known.

The  radio nets , used by the Headquarter Division Command, at the beginning of the 17 th of september,   in Operation Market Garden, are seen in the two diagrams below:

net diagram

Immediately after the landing of the first lift,  air landings from the 1st Parachute Brigade, the 21st Independent Parachute Company and the 1st Airlanding Brigade, on 17 september, the decision was made to be as mobile as possible, so the radio net consist only of wireless sets no 68 P. The radio net was at 16.07 hour just  like the above part in the diagram. These contacts formed the Para Report Center. The division headquarter was in the woods near Landing Zone (LZ) “Z”.

There were no other types of wireless sets like the Wireless set no 22.

With the second lift, at  18 september, 14.15 hour, the setup below in the picture, was planned. In this lift the 4th Parachute Brigade and the 1st Polish Parachute Brigade were flown in, however delayed for 5 hours. In this landing, the gliders brought other Wireless sets with more power output, like the Wireless set no 22.

In the setup diagram below, I made a drawing of the radio nets of my own, using several data from different sources. It is quite complete with frequency numbers/frequencies for the various brigades etc.

Although there are several publications of these radio nets, I think this setup is very correctly. But is was the planning of it in England, after a few day most changed because of heavy casualties or loss of radio material due to the unexpected heavy German resistance. Lot of links did not function anymore.

Note: also the Wireless set 46 was in use.

eigen setup radioverb

The Wireless set no 22 should be used often in the radio jeeps of the various brigade nets, to make contact with the Divisional Command Net, because of their larger range of 5 miles. The WS 68 P was used for contacts from the Brigade Command Net to the battalions, because the range between them was smaller at about a maximum range of 3 miles. Also the commanders (Urquhart) had a separate Wireless set no 22 (rover set) for contact with the Divisional Command Net in a radio jeep.

Also a communication line with the  Airborne Corps in England, and the Head Quarter of the British Airborne Corps at Groesbeek. These went by the wireless transmitter WS 76 in morse code. Wire antennas, for sky wave, were used.

And all that in  these  various radio nets with a lot of different frequencies between 2096 Khz and 6345 Khz.

So it needs a good discipline, letting these nets working well, so to use the correct frequency in those radio nets.

The communications should work well in that way.  The radioset was providing low power,  but that would be no problem, because the distance between the groups with the WS no 22 and other portable radio’s, would be small.  The range of the radio’s should be sufficient. Airborne Signal troops are trained and supposed to operate in small perimeters. The WS 22 should have a range of 5 miles, the range for the WS 18/68 up to 3 miles. Just good enough for airborne operations. The progress of all groups, in marching on to the bridge would be well, because they did not expect much resistance of the German troops there.  Of course airborne troops depend on speed in their operation for making the operation  successful, they are not heavily armed, and they depend on artillery- and air support. So a quick advance  is most important in succeeding, so the good functioning radio nets. So all would be a success, when everything would go just according the plans. When reaching the bridge, they had to capture it and hold it till the other allies from the south soon were arrived.  This was what they had in mind.

But the communications did not often work very well in practice. This because,  the whole operation did not go well. Also some tactical faults and misunderstandings about the ranges of the radio’s at larger perimeters then expected, where the Airbornes had to operate in.

There were many reasons, why.

One of them, was the unexpected heavy resistance, counterattacks of the German army after a one day,  and then as a result of it,  the fall out communications because wireless operators  were killed or their radios were damaged.  These German troops were much larger then expected, also well armed, great amount of armoured vehicles and even tanks were in use, which was not all  known by the allies, or were not taken seriously?  Information about these came also from the local resistance. Even air pictures were taken. But still not taken seriously?

So a quick advance of most of the airborne troops, which was very important, was delayed  They only had to hold the bridge for a couple of days, when the rest of the allies came soon at the south part of the bridge. The delay of marching on was too large with a lot of casualities and losses of material.  The effect of speed was gone! And then an Airborne Company becomes in a great dangerous situation, when they have to fight constantly with their light waepons, against the german troops with their armoured cars and even tanks.

2)

Other reasons, why these radio nets failed often: 

a)

Because of the heavy unexpected resistance of the recovering German troops , already after one day,  many radio jeeps, with the WS 22 at the back of the jeep, also the portable radiosets like WS 18, WS 68,  were destroyed. Also a lot of well trained radio operators were killed. There were none or very small replacement for them. So several important  links between the several nets did not function anymore.

Mind that the wireless operator was the only one who was trained and can netting the wireless sets to the correct frequency in a radio net! Eeach radio net had there own type of radio’s, wireless operators were trained on these radio’s. The could often not work with other different radio’s of other nets. For instance the radio of the Artillery, the WS 19 HP. This group had their own wireless operators, which were trained on this set, etc..

Also  the  the Division Command Net, had no contact  with  the  1e Para Brigade headquarter . So the commander (Urquhart ), who was in this net with a WS 22.

b)

Also the planning and setting up of the radio nets in England were, by lack of time, not precise. The frequencies of the nets were for a great deal, not tested . Training exercises in these communications in the UK showed that these were working pretty well, as long the radio sets, like WS 22 and WS 18/68,  were used on the limiting ranges of 3 miles for WS 68 P and 5 miles for WS 22. When ranges became larger, at Arnhem ranges became larger, and especially in surrounding with buildings, trees, they did not  function anymore, the  communications failed. These failures showed up also in the landing earia in Italy, where ranges became larger. Airborne troops are trained to operate with these radio’s with  these limiting ranges of 3 to 5 miles, not in expanding perimeters. That ranges at Arnhem were larger, was known by the Signal divisions, but were ignored by the Staff?  The distance from the Division headquarter  to the bridge was 8 miles and to the Corps Head Quarter at Nijmegen was 15 miles!

It was known, it was explained, it was recognised, it was accepted, such was the urge to get on with the operation.

Radio’s with more power could be a solution. in increasing ranges. But there were no replacements for the radio’s so close before the operation, because radio’s with more power did have a bigger size and weight. Size and weight were limited in this airborne operation, because of the limited available airplanes and gliders for this operation. And do not forget, that the wireless operators had a training for those lightweight and less power radio sets, time was not there to train them eventually for these other radio’s.

 They finally hoped and expected (!), that resistance was very less, and that when the bridge was captured fast, most of the troops were also already in close perimeter to the bridge, so the ranges were sufficient for the communications.

But at Arnhem, it packed out all different.

c)

The distances between the several units became also large because of unexpected circomstances. The range of the radio’s was ment for a maximum range, as described above. The increasing ranges became often not sufficient  for making contacts with the troop ahead. Also the surroundings of the terrain effected the range of the radio’s.

f)

For the Rear Link nets, communication with the 30 st Corps at Groesbeek and headquarter at London, e.g. WS 76 transmitter,  the crystals were often defected already or after a few days destroyed with the transmitters by heavy fire.

The problem with these crystals was, that frequencies of the radio nets were planned frequencies for day and night time, just for all the 24 hour. Crystals for daytime were the higher frequency ones. During night time contacts the lower frequency crystals should be used. And that for frequencies according the plans.

Why : to get the most increased range, e.g.  London, according the frequency range of the equipment, e.g. WS 76, you have to transmit at higher frequencies (above aproximately 5 Mhz) at daytime. Sky wave range is big. So sufficient range for base stations in the UK.

At night, you have to use lower frequencies (aproximately from 1,5 Mhz till 4,5 Mhz) for maximum range by sky wave, to reach London.

But the crystals went often defected. Resupply of these crystals, for instance daytime crystals,  became mostly in enemy aria. So they had to use night time crystal at day time, what did not function. Range was poor, not sky wave but ground wave.

 The problem was, that the WS 76 transmitter could function only at crystal control, so the crystals had to be used, so fixed frequencies.

So in this new situations, contacts with London were very bad after a few days.

g)

Often the various brigades etc. were not always in the same radio net, they used to be in, each radio net had their own frequencies. Also, sometimes the frequency of the crystals to be used for some radio transmitters were not the same as the frequencies of the to be used radio nets.

An example was the Division Command Net with the the Reconnaissance Squadron Net, which was never meant to be in the same radio net, although they thought, they were.

The plan was, that the 1e Parachute Brigade should defend the captured bridge The 1st Parachute Brigade landed about  8 miles away from the bridge and had to walk on foot to the bridge. The Reconnaissance  Squadron, however, landed first on 17 September,  under commander Major Gough. They should take the bridge so very fast, that the element of  surprise was not lost. This by using 31 heavy armoured jeeps. They should soon be  followed by the the battalions of the 1st Parachute Brigade on foot. When arrived, they should take over for the captured bridge. Then waiting for the 30 st Corps.

This Reconnaissance Squadron was under command of the 1st Parachute Brigade, and became a “coupe de main” role.  Speed was necessairy. When the  Reconnaissance Squadron should reach the bridge, they should capture and  hold it, till it  should be released by the 1e Parachute Brigade under Brigadier Lathbury. So they soon started after their landing on the Landing Zones at 17 September, for the bridge.

The role of the Reconnaissance Squadron was to be of the utmost importance to the success of the whole operation, capturing the bridge, this by the effect of surprise. They soon started the way to the bridge, while the 1st Parachute Brigade started later going to the bridge.

h)

Rumors and other.

The commander, General Urquhart. who  stayed behind at his headquarter at Landing zone Z, he was in the Division Command net, could not establish radio contact  with the 1e Parachute Brigade in this net, so no information about the progress of the operation. The Brigade started soon after the landing for the bridge. The should use a more powerful WS 22 for contact with the Division Command Net. But without allowing sufficient time to open the WS 22, they headed for the Bridge with only the WS 68 P, which had a more limiting range, then the WS no 22. When they got in the Arnhem surroudings, the range of 3 miles of the WS 68 P was to poor to make good contact with the Divisional Command Net at the LZ, e.g. General Urguhart.  Also the buildings and trees absorbed the signals, so influenced the range. With the help of the WS 22, it could be functioned.

Besides not using the WS 22,  this WS no 22 was later earmarked for another task. The 1st Parachute Brigade had expected to receive four WS 22 sets, namely one for use in the Divisionel Command net, one for the Brigade Commander and two spares. In fact the glider containing one of the sets not arriving and one of the others was destroyed by enemy fire during the fly-in, so only two sets arrived intact. The brigade commander took one of them for his rover set. and the signals officer intended to put the other to the Brigade Command Net to the 1e, 2e and 3e battalions at the first halt, because he had then a more powerful radio set then the WS 68 P.

Also the following rumor reached Urquhart. The rumor, which seemed after all not reality. The safe arrival of the squadron gliders of the Reconnaissance Squadron, carrying a total of 31 jeeps, which were essential for the “coupe de main” force to the bridge, were damaged by crashes of most of the gliders. In reality only 3 jeeps were damaged at  the landing, so 28 were there. But this was not told to him.  So he thought, that the progress of the Reconnaissance Squadron had scattered. So the effect of reaching the bridge fast, should has gone.

So he wanted to  make immediately an alternative plan with Gough and the plan that Lathbury should be told that his 2nd battalion, under John Frost, was now going hell-bent for the bridge alone.  He decided to go, with a chauffeur and radioman in a jeep with a WS no 22 radio set,  to the Arnhem aria to do so.

On his route his wireless operator was trying constantly to make radio contact with the Reconnaissance Squadron. But unfortuniatly the the WS no 22 in the Division Command Net was not in the radio net of Gough. They had a radio net of their own. These nets had different frequencies. That was a an unexpected mistake, which was not planned and  got a big influence on the progress of the battle. Because he could not make of course,  radio contact, he left the jeep at one moment and went by foot, to look after Gough. He did not manage to reach Gough because of heavy German resistance. When he came back, he saw that his his jeep was hit by mortar fire, the radio set, a WS no 22 at the Divisional Command net, at the back of his jeep was damaged and did not function properly. The wireless operator was badly wounded and was being removed by stretcher-bearers. So ended an attempt of establish radio contact over a radio net which was never meant to exist. If signals had failed it was through a missue of signals.

But general Urquhart did at least found brigadier Lathbury, commander of the 1st Parachute Brigade, who was with the 3th battalion at that moment. With his radio set, he contacted the Division Headquarters Net, which informed him of the progress of the 2e Battalion to the bridge. Reception was spacmodic and difficult. At about 21.30 at 17 september, just before the radio failed,  the brigadier told him, that Frost’s 2nd battalion did reach the bridge.

i)

 The supplies, which were dropped, did not reach always the troops. So, spares were not there, for instance  weapons and other like the replacement of crystals for the radio transmitters. Also replacing damaged radio material was scattered. Also supplies, although they were dropped on the right DZ’s, did not reach them, because these original and planned  dropping zones were fallen into enemy hands already, which was not known at that moment.

Only  13 % of the supplies were dropped correctly.

j)

 A lot of radio jeeps were damaged by the heavy German counter attacks. So the generator sets, also at the back of the radio jeep, for charging the radio batteries, often were damaged and not functioning anymore. So the radio sets did not have anymore battery power after some time, if still the radio sets were in working condition at that moment. In that case , if possible, they used  the vehicle batteries of damaged jeeps, but when, some time later,  these were discharged, and it was over and out.

radio jeep

Airborne radio jeep with WS 22. In the middle at the back of the jeep, the generator. Also some radio batteries and antenna wires.

container WS22

Wireless set no 22, dropped  in a special container. This container was attached to a parachute, then dropped out of the airplane to the dropping zones (DZ).

k)

Also the terrain with many hills and woods in  the neighborhood of Arnhem and Oosterbeek,  were effecting a secure communication, especially for increased distances. It was also recognized in the training excerscises with the Airborne troops in the UK, before the starting of the battle. So were the portable radio’s, with even less power,  like WS no 68 P and R with only 0,25 watts. The range of the WS no 68 was 3 miles with rod aerials on speech. Especially the WS no 68  failed in good communication in these surroundings, while another radio set in use, the WS no 18 was some better. This due to the frequency of the the WS 18, which was higher then these of the WS 68 and because the rod earial was mounted on a base on top of the case of the transmitter, while the aerial of the WS 68 was at the leftside of the case.

Power of the WS 22 was also low, only 1 Watts. The range was 5 miles on rod aerial, on speech. Much radiation of the signal was also absorbed by the surrounding, The antenna was mostly a whip /rod aerial at the back of the radio jeep.

But also wire antennas were in use at a stationary post. These were suitable for sky wave contacts for bigger ranges to Nijmegen.

The rod antenna was a vertical one.  The radiation was easy absorbed by hills, trees, sandy surface and buildings etc.   These contacts were so called ground wave contacts, only suitable for short distance. The maximum distance was expected about 5 miles for the WS no 22,  now because of these surroundings just 2 – 3 miles, in fact most distances seemed to be 10 to 15 miles from the Division Command Net at the LZ to the troops, who reached Arnhem.

l)

Only the Rear link communication with the headquarter in London and the 30st Corps in Groesbeek sometimes worked well at the beginning, because of their horizontal wire  antennas (inverted L-antennas) and most radio’s and their crystals were still functioning.  The radio sets were the receiver R109 and the transmitter WS 76 on CW. But after a few days, most of these radio’s were destroyed by enemy fire.

The Wireless set no 76 and receiver R 109 were also in use in a different radio net by the “Public Relation” group for reporting to the BBC in London. This contact was mostly well working. The contacts were made by the Royal Corps of Signals, the Phantom regiment.

The Phantom regiment used NVIS. which stands for Near Vertical Incidence Skywave methods.

Explanation NVIS contacts:

By NVIS the radiated signal from the transmitter was nearly almost going totally vertical upwards and was then refected by the ionosfeer above towards to earth again. The advantage was, that the dead zone was very less, so you got a much better contact with stations at a distance of about 100 till 150 km. Just about a little from  the landing zones to the 30th Corps at Groesbeek, south of Nijmegen. Using a dipole antenna, the dead zone was mostly larger, depending of the height of the antenna, time of day, season and the used frequency. If the dipole had a height of at least a quaerter wave, the most radiation establish a larger dead zone. At a frequency of for instance 14 Mc, it is very large and has a distance of at least hundreds of km’s. A dead zone means: the distance between the startingpoint(antenna) and the point where the relected signal comes back for the first time to earth.

Also these NVIS contacts with the Allies at Nijmegen did not work always, especially at the beginning, for asking artillery support. To get information about the situations, they decided to use  the WS no76 and receiver R109 . Information for the allies, for instance artillery support in Nijmegen  from the perimeter at Hartenstein,  first went to London and from Londen to Nijmegen etc. These contacts worked well. But only at special day times! Other contacts with the WS 22, did not work well in practice directly to Nijmegen. This because the distance between them was too big for ground wave contact and too little for skywave contact. The dead zone between them was critical. Because of skywave the signal jumped almost over the target, a groundwave goes straight on to it and but has a small range. That was the problem for making good contact. It was critical because of the dead zone, and because of the few power of the used Wireless set no 22. Lateron also the Wireless set no 19 HP of the Artillery, was u

sed, because of the increased power, it was less critical and worked well.

A critical note about the range of the Wireless set no 68. The range should be 3 miles. But this was in ideal circunstances.  In open terrain, no woody terrain for example.

The set was a manpack, at the back of the soldier. It used a vertical aerial. In this position, the maximum radiated energie depends on a good capacity between the set and earth. That is a electrical law. The capacity to earth in this case, was of course no counterpoise or else, but the body of the soldier. Suppose, you match the vertical ( a provision on the set was there, to do so) in a fixed position of the soldier to maximum aerial current on the meter of the set. The range might be 3 miles, depending how large the capacity was at that moment. But, because the soldier is on the move, sometimes laying on the ground, because of enemy fire, a big mismatch could occur, because the capacity to earth is changing very much. In practice, in war circomstances, you don’t rematch your earial all the time. You don’t have the time often. So the range, in practice, decreased often. So staying close together, communications should work well.

That is why, the Reconnaissance Squadron took a big mistake  by using the WS 68 in a rush, instead of unpacking and installing the Wireless set no 22 on the to be used jeeps. But, as mentioned before, there was a lack of WS 22 at that moment, maybe the officers made that wrong decision, of using the left WS 22 (2) for themselves, instead giving them to the Reconnaissance Squadron Or there was no other way, doing so?

The steel body of the jeep was a much better and more stable capacity to earth. And, of course, its power output was more. So communication with the Divisional Command Net, at the Landing Zone, and other WS 68 man packs should function much better. And distances became larger, because of reasons mentioned before.

So in fact, the proper function of the WS 68 scattered, not of technical reasons, but because of the reasons above. Maybe, if these signallers were radio amateurs in their civilian lives, they should understand these problem?

So it was not the technical condition or design of the Wireless sets, which established the often failing of the radio nets, but it was a complex amount of  many, many other reasons, described in the text before, and constantly changing situations because of heavy, unexpected enemy resistance. I tried to give an explanation in this article, why.

While, as said before, very negative, unexamened publications in several articles after the war, which was not really true, also explained by the auteur Lewis Golden in his book.

So  far the the story about the radio communications in this Arnhem edition.

But I tried out the Wireless set no 22 as a radio amateur:

I have made many communications, as a radio-amateur, with many other radio amateurs in the 80 meter amateur band with sometimes at least 200 km distance. This at day time . At night time it should go better, but now a days the amateur bands are in the evening and night,  that crowdy with lots of sky wave signals, signals are that strong, that it is not easy to do it then. CW would be possible. In that time, the bands were not so crowdy with all kind of radio signals.

My report was a not such a strong signal, but very good readable now and then if propagations were well. Readibility is the most import thing. Of course I used a well tuned dipole antenna for that distance, but consider the  output power was only 1 Watt!. So much is possible with the WS 22.

Further on, the WS no 22 is easy to control,  and netting (netting means: the receive frequency is the same as the transmit frequency)  on the other station is also very easy and accurate. Also modulation strength  in phone is very well.

Me in front of the WS 22

Here I am working with my Wireless set no 22 with an other radio amateur in the 80 meter band, using my 20 meter dipole antenna.

Just a bit in style with the Airbornes  :)

Some experiments with the WS no 22 in the back of the garden of my house on a beautiful sunny day in June 2015. See pictures below.

I wanted to test the WS no 22 on battery supply (12 volt – 150 Ah for sufficient power) with a 22 inch vertical aerial on 80 en 40 meters. The aerial consisted out of 5 sections type F- rods. Each rod section is 4 inches long, so a total lenght of 22 inch. I used the the original counterpoise of the set and the original aerial base stick. type no 11.

The experiment was how to see, if the matching data of the aerial to the WS no 22 was correct, just like written on the tuning chart on the power supply. It seemed, that it was just the same as on the tuning chart.

At day time, it was summer propagation (!), there was few to hear on 80 meters., just lot of  man made noise.  On 40 meters is was better. Some Single Side Band stations and many CW stations could be heard very clearly.

Afterwards I connected my 20 meters dipole antenna, by means of a symmetrical tuner, to the WS no 22.

Signals on 40 meters at daytime became much stronger now. Only no contact was made, because of the low power of only 1 watt, HF output, however. But the experiment was a succes. Also sitting in front of the set, in this sunny position, and listening to the CW stations, was very nice.

The tuning chart for a vertical rod aerials of different lenght.

IMG_7880

On this chart is to be seen that for the frequency of 7 Mc, a lenght of 22 inches (5 sections of F type rods of 4 inches) the aerial coupling is zero, the tuning is 105. For 3,5 Mhz, the aerial coupling is 14, the tuning is 317. These values were almost the same as in my experiment. Just some digits difference.

IMG_7869

The WS no 22 in my garden.

IMG_7871

The aerial base stick no 11.

IMG_7879

The Wireless set no 22, with the BC 611 transceiver.

——–

Pictures of battle scenes.

Pictures Arnhem

Here some original pictures  of scenes during that battle.  Pictures taken in the perimeter around Hartenstein Oosterbeek in the last days of the battle. Also some pictures of the landing strokes, where men were busy in unpacking the supplies out of the gliders.

To be seen pictures of the transmitter WS transmitter no 76 and receiver R109, a WS no 22 picture from the film  “Theirs Is The Glory” made  at Arnhem just after the war. During making that film, surroundings were almost still the same way as during the battle, because all the buildings were still damaged so close after the war. Arnhem was like a guost town with all these damaged houses etc.

Also to be seen General Major Urquhart, commander of the  First British Airborne division, in front of his headquarters in the perimeter around  Hartenstein Hotel, Oosterbeek near Arnhem.  And a picture of Hotel Hartenstein in that time, which is now the Airborne Museum at Oosterbeek, delicated to that battle.

Below the discription of other  very important radio contacts, for increasing the succes of the battle,  used during the battle.

1)

VEEPS.

At 17 September,together with the 1e Airborne Division, 2  American Air Support teams with  2 “Veeps” were dropped with them, by 4 WACO gliders on the landings Zones Z near Wolfheze. The landingzone X was the first plan, later changed to Z.

A Veep means a radio installation at the back of a jeep, consisting of a SCR 193, transmitter BC 191, a receiver BC 312 for HF , and a VHF SCR 542 transmitter . These teams got their training, just one day before the operation started.

These VEEPS were used  for Close Airsupport to the British Airborne Corps and in making contacts with the 82e (US)- and 101e (US) Airborne Division at Groesbeek  But unfortunately the frequency  of the BC 191 and BC 312 , could not be tuned at the frequency  of 2968 Khz of the to be used radio net.  Also with the VHF SCR 542, they could not make any contact with airplanes, flying over. Because of different radio crystal channels?

So effective airsupport  during the operation was missing.  Only the last day of  the battle , by improved  methods, an air support came through, this by the Phantom brigade.

Later on these Veeps were destroyed by the heavy enemy  fire in the neighbourhood of Hartenstein,  Oosterbeek. The problem was, that these radio’s could not dug in, like other radio’s, like the WS 22. Power consumption was that much, that even the motor of the jeep had to run, for the power consumption.

IMG_0001

Some pictures of a VEEP, displayed at a exposition at Hartenstein Airborne museum in 1991.

2)

Eureka-Rebecca.

Also, to lead the towing airplanes with their gliders to the right pos

ition of the landingzones, an Eureka/Rebecca installation was used. The  Eureka mark 2 beacon used at Arnhem was the type TR 3174 with 5 channels at around 220 Mhz.

The Eureka was dropped together with the  21e Independent Para Brigade. This Brigade had the task of placing the Eureka transmitter on the Landing Zones. A kind of Pathfinder group.

These Eureka Rebecca’s worked well at the first day. After the landings, all were destroyed. So not any one got into enemy hands.

The Eureka transmitter  receiver was switched on at the Landing Zone, and was in  that  way,  marking the position of it by its radio signal.

At some  airplanes  , a Rebecca transponder with indicator unit with optical screen (CRT) was placed. With the figure on this screen, the airplane could navigate  to the right position of the landing zones. With some types speaking to each other was possible.

Rebecca

Eureka Mark 2 beacon, at display in Hartenstein Airborne Museum in Oosterbeek.

3)

The AMES TYPE 6 Light Warning Set.

In the planning of Market garden, they knew, that the Airborne troops were a easy target for German enemy fighter planes.

There fore, plans were made, to make a long air landing strip of 1000 meters near Nijmegen for Beaufighter planes and eventually night fighters. To leadl these planes, a RAF Ground Controlled Intercetion (GCI) radar station was needed.

Already in 1941, the British TRE started to develope mobile radar installation with a range of 50 miles. In 1942, socalled Light Warning Sets (LWU) were made, which fitted in 3-tonner or CWT freight car.

With the help of the Air Ministry, also LWU and GCI were developed for airborne use. So 2 LWU’s and a GCI set with personel were placed in the 38 Group RAF and under command of the headquarter of the 1e Airborne Corps.

At 17 december, these installations should be dropped by gliders near Nijmegen. However, later that day, the location was changed to the landing Zone “X”, near Wolfheze at Arnhem.

At day “3” of operation Market garden, the 878 st (US) Aviation Engineering Battalion would make a landing with gliders near Wolfheze, to establish this landing strip. The 2 LWU’s should be delivered also with these gliders. For each LWU, 2 gilders were needed.

One LWU (no 6080) with 9 men personnel, had to be carried by 2 Horsa’s. From one Horsa (chalk Number 5000), the towing plane, a Stirling, was hit and crashed near Opheusden. The glider landed near Hemmen in the Betuwe. Because the right landing zone was missed, the installation part, which formed a complete installation with the other part in another glider, could not be used and therefore it was destroyed.

The second Horsa, Chalk Number 5002, with the second part of the first one (LWU 6080), landed at Landing Zone “X”. but was soon hit by enemy fire and was very damaged.

The second LWU, no 6341, with 14 men personnel, also got lost. One Horsa, with the first part, was hit during the landing and crashed near Dodewaard. The second Horsa, with the second part, landed correctly at the landing Zone. But, because of the loss of the first part, they had to destroy it too.

So the use of Light Warning Sets near Arnhem ended into a disaster.

LWU 1

Above a picture of a Light Warning Set, AMES Type 6 ( AMES, type 6,  means Air Ministry Experimental Station type 6), displayed at the Hartenstein Airborne Museum at Oosterbeek, many years ago. It was a loaner and almost complete. Unfortuniatly, it is not there anymore, just like other important radio’s like WS 22, WS 76, R109, since the museum was overhauled some years ago.

PPI

The PPI of the radar part of the LWU. AT his display, cathode ray tube, positions of airplanes in the neihbour hood could be displayed.

R 109 T.

Receiver R 109 T – tropicalised.

Receiver R 109 T.

R 109 T.

Receiver R 109 T. This British receiver was used in conjunction with the Wireless Set no 76 transmitter. This transmitter no 76 was crystal controlled and only suitable for CW. The T stands for tropicalised, which means they are suitable for operating in the tropic theature.

Both, the R109 and the Wireless tranmitter 76, were used for the REAR LINK  radio nets with the headquarters in England and the 30st Corps at Groesbeek . Antennas were longwires. The communications worked in the beginning often very well. Later not,  because most of the crystals got defected and had to be replaced. Also many were destroyed, together with the transmitter by heavy enemy fire. Replacement of the crystals , which were dropped,  mostly  became behind enemy lines. The functioning of these radio’s, because of sky wave contact, are described in the post of  the Wireless Set no 22.

Note, that the combination of Wireless transmitter no 76/receiver R109 was also in use by The Public Relation Group in a different radio net, only CW mode. This by the Royal Corps of Signals, the Phantom group. They reported the progress of the battle to the BBC in London.

At the last days,  because this radionet was still functioning well and other Rear Links with WS 76 and R109 not well anymore, most radio’s were destroyed,  they decided to use the net with their radio’s from this Public Relations group, by lack of other transmitter no 76,  for communication with the headquarters.

PicRadioJeep

British_airborne_troops_man_a_trench_with_a_No._76_wireless_set_at_Heldon_in_Holland,_3_February_1945._B14347

The two  pictures above:

At the first picture, is to be seen the wireless operator at the left,  with his headphones still on his head, giving fire support to the airborne soldier right. This in the southern part of the perimeter around  Hotel Hartenstein.

At the second picture, the transmitter Wireless transmitter 76  at the right with the receiver R109 at the left,  also in the garden of the perimeter around Hotel hartenstein, Oosterbeek. Probably this radio set was in use at that moment, by The Public Relation radio net.

The pictures below, shows, that my  receiver is in excellent, original condition.

But tropicalised versions, mostly are in well estate.

 Inside mid R109 T

Left the whole receiver part. In the mid the service chassis with spare valves and at the right the vibrator powersupply working on 6 volts DC.

left inside inner R109T

Receiver part with spare vibrator for the power supply.

underside chassis R109T

Beneath the chassis. In the mid the service chassis.

Case R109 inside

Inside the case, with the schematic diagram for service.

——–

R109-A

Here my receiver R 109 A with the Wireless Transmitter no 76 under test in the back of my garden on a sunny summer day in 2015.  I used a vertical antenna of 22 inch (about 5 meters). The antenna consist of 5 aerial rods, type F, with a counterpoise. Lots of amateur stations were heard on 40 meters in CW and SSB.

WS 38 mk2 ster

Wireless set no 38 mk 2 *.

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Wireless set no 38 mark 2*

WS 38 mk2 ster

This is the Wireless Set no 38 mk2*. It is a modificaton of the mk-2 version. The lampholder and puschbutton are missing and replaced by a metal cover plate. Also to be seen in front the control box for the throat microphone and headphones.

This radio set was common used in the battle of Arnhem as a portable radio in some of the battalions.

Picture below the WS no 38 is to be seen.

Voor hartenstein na de Slag AJ50 (2)

Arnhem garden

The 1st picture above, a destroyed Airborne jeep at Oosterbeek, Utrechtse weg. Just watch at the left under of the picture, the Wireless set no 38 on the ground! Just enlarge the picture for a better view, by clicking just at the picture. The picture below, is the same situation nowadays. The houses at the back are still there.

This picture was taken at that time at the north side in the garden in front of Hartenstein Hotel, being now the Airborne Museum. All still can be recognized nowadays. The garden, with the houses at the background, are still there, with now at the left, a memorial statue in it. In front of that garden the Utrechtse weg  road. Coming by car from Arnhem along the Utrechtse weg , this situation is clearly to be seen at the right in front of the museum. You can’t miss it.

WS 38 mk2

Wireless set no 38 mk2

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  1. Wireless set no 38 mk2

Wireless set no 38 mk2

WS 38 mk2\

This is the Wireless set no 38 mk2. It is a modification  of the WS 38 mk1. Watch the lampholder and black pushbutton. By pushing the button, the lamp will be lighten up during transmitt. Furtheron, the radio is technical the same as the MK2*.

WS 19 HP britisch

The British Wireless set no 19 High Power.

The British Wireless set no 19 HP

(WS 19 High Power).

With discriptions of other radio materials, during operation Market Garden.


WS 19 HP britisch

This is the Wireless set no 19 HP. Above in the picture the receiver R 109 T.

This radio was used  in The battle of Arnhem, only by The Royal Artillery Brigade radio net, for asking artillery support from the south. They landed  near Arnhem at 17 september 1944.

A foreword to the precise moment of use of the WS 19 HP by The Royal Artillery in the battle.

The Royal Artillery was ment to be used, to give fire support to the paratroopers. They also  were  with the paratroopers in the first lines, marching on to the bridge, as scout troopers to give information about the german situations ahead. This information came to the Command Division Net 1,  by radio’s, like WS 68 R. The 1e- and the 4e Paracute Brigade did have  7 teams under command. By lack of sufficient airplanes, only a part Of the Royal Artillery was dropped at the landingzones. Because of the restricted dimensions and weight of radio transmitters, transported by the gliders, only 2 WS 19 HP sets were permitted to be dropped.

After the landing at 17 september to march on very fast, there would be only radio contact by the WS 68 portable transceiver. This because, the second lift with the more powerful WS 22 radiosets in the  heavy armoured Jeeps, were dropped at 18 september. These was the socalled Para Report Centre. At 16.07 a contact was between the HQ (TAC) and The 1e Para Brigade, the 1 Air landing Brigade and the 21e Para Brigade with their WS 68 radio sets.

Frequency in use was 2096 Khz., the range with the WS 68 should belimited to 3 miles.

At  17 september , the 1e Airlanding Brigade  together with the Division Command net 1,  with the Commander General Major URQUHART in this net, were positioned in the woods  east of landingzone “Z”. They had also in use a Wireless set no 22, the range should increase to 5 miles by using this WS 22.

At 24.00, the net results with  the Division Command Net  were:

Para Brigade no contact,

1e Airlanding Brigade  from 23.00 no contact,

so even the 21e Independent Para Company from 23.00.

At 17 september The Division Command net 2 with radio telegrafie (Wireless transmitter 76 and R109 ) with England was broken at 21.45. Just some moments,  the contact was there.

At  18 september, 08.00, the Division Command moved to near Arhem. A new headquarter was housed now in Huize Hillock at the Utrechtse weg. At 16.30, they went to Hotel Hartenstein at Oosterbeek.

Also the Royal Artillery  went at 18 septembert to Hartenstein. They tried to get contact in the afternoon, with the  Forward Observation Officers (FOO) at the south of the river Rhine .Probably a WS 22.  They used  a 10 meter longwire antenna. But this failed. They did a  second trial, now with   the WS 19 HP from the Royal Artillery, because of its bigger power output . It failed again. By removing it to the second floor, they finally could make, for artillery support, contact with the artillery of the 30-st Corps at Groesbeek. This because of the constantly heavy shell and mortar fire.  But soon they had to remove the radio to the cellar basement , because of this heavy fire. It was functioning the first days very well, all though later on a relay station was used on the southern border of the Rhine river.  Other wireless sets, by lack of suffucient output power, had sometimes contact with the 30e Corps. But the WS 19 HP contact was very good all these last days.

The headquarter, with a small amount of men at  Hotel Hartenstein, in a well defended perimeter, had to stay there, because of increasing German attacks. They wanted to reach the brige, but because of the heavy German resistance, this failed. They stayed there till the 25/26e september.  Position got worse by the hour. AT LAST they decided to leave this perimeter. This was called Operation Berlin. A small group of men escaped by small boats across the river, with the help of the Polish division at hte southern side of the river. A few men  stayed behind with the wounded and were keeping the Germans busy with all kind of radio signals etc. Also some other survivors , who could not be transported across the Rhine, were hidden by the local resistance. At 21e of oktober, another small group escaped.  At the end of october another trial:  but this trial failed. All remaining working radio’s and other communication materials were destroyed then. Some survivors, wounded, were left behind and were later transported to prisoner camps in Germany.